Species At Risk

Haldimand-Norfolk

Fowler's Toad
Barn Owl
Snuffbox

Species at risk in Haldimand-Norfolk region

Amphibians

Fowler's Toad
Fowler's Toad (Anaxyrus fowleri)
endangered
Fowler’s Toads are nocturnal and are mostly active at night, but can occasionally be seen during rainy, overcast days.
Jefferson Salamander
Jefferson Salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum)
threatened
Unlike most small animals, Jefferson salamanders can live a very long time – up to 30 years.

Birds

Acadian Flycatcher
Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens)
endangered
The Acadian Flycatcher only spends about four months of the year in Canada. The rest of the time, it is migrating or wintering in the tropical forests of Central America and northern South America.
Bald Eagle
Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)
special concern
The raspy scream of the bald eagle often heard on movies and TV is actually from a red-tailed hawk. This bird actually gives a sort of watery, gurgling trill that doesn’t sound like it suits the bird.
Barn Owl
Barn Owl (Tyto alba)
endangered
These birds hunt in the dark and have keen hearing – so keen they can capture prey even in total darkness.
Black Tern
Black Tern (Chlidonias niger)
special concern
The Black Tern is very social. It breeds in loose colonies and usually forages, roosts and migrates in flocks of a few to more than 100 birds, occasionally up to tens of thousands.
Bobolink
Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus)
threatened
These birds migrate from Ontario to Argentina - one of the longest migrations of any North American songbird.
Cerulean Warbler
Cerulean Warbler (Cardellina canadensis)
threatened
Since this warbler is a bird of the tree tops, it is often best identified from below. Birdwatchers will recognize adult males by the thin dark band that crosses the upper part of the predominantly white breast.
Eastern Whip-poor-will
Eastern Whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus vociferus)
threatened
Chicks seem to hatch near full moons, giving parents more light for foraging so they can supply the extra energy demands of their rapidly-growing brood.
Henslow’s Sparrow
Henslow’s Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii)
endangered
The Henslow’s Sparrow is a short-distance migrant, travelling only as far as the southern United States, primarily from Texas to Georgia.
Hooded Warbler
Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina)
special concern
Although these warblers appear to form monogamous pairs, recent DNA studies found that only about two thirds of females produce offspring that are fathered by their social mate.
King Rail
King Rail (Rallus elegans)
endangered
During courtship, males present crayfish or small crabs to females in their bill.
Least Bittern
Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis)
threatened
The Least Bittern is more likely to be heard than seen in its dense marsh habitat. The typical call given by males is a hollow, quiet “coo-coo-coo”. When alarmed, they can give a harsh “kek-kek-kek” call. They are most vocal in early morning and evening, but could potentially call anytime during the day or night.
Louisiana Waterthrush
Louisiana Waterthrush (Parkesia motacilla)
special concern
The Louisiana Waterthrush is among the earliest long-distance migrating birds to arrive back to Canada in the spring, typically arriving by mid-April.
Peregrine Falcon
Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus)
special concern
The peregrine falcon is one of the world’s fastest animals, and has been clocked diving for prey at speeds of 160 km an hour.
Piping Plover
Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus)
endangered
Within an hour of hatching and drying off, chicks are able to find their own food.
Prothonotary Warbler
Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea)
endangered
The Prothonotary Warbler was named after legal clerks in the Roman Catholic Church, known as prothonotaries, who sometimes wear a golden hood and a blue cape.
Red-headed Woodpecker
Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus)
special concern
In addition to a bill, woodpeckers have special anatomical features to help them dig holes in wood and find insects. A covering of feathers over the nostrils keeps out pieces of wood and wood powder. A long, barbed tongue searches crevices and cracks for food. And the bird's salivary glands produce a glue-like substance that coats the tongue and, along with the barbs, helps it capture insects.
Short-eared Owl
Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus)
special concern
Short-eared Owls are nomadic, meaning that individuals wander over large distances, usually settling in areas where prey densities are high.
Yellow-breasted Chat
Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens)
endangered
The Yellow-breasted Chat's song consists of a weird assortment of clicks, whistles ands even chuckles.

Fish

Channel Darter
Channel Darter (Percina copelandi)
threatened
The sandy colour of the Channel Darter provides perfect camouflage with the sandy river and lake bottoms where it lives.
Eastern Sand Darter
Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida)
endangered
During the breeding season, the normally drab-looking, male Eastern Sand Darters become flushed with yellowish colouration and can develop metallic blue and green colours on their cheeks.
Lake Chubsucker
Lake Chubsucker (Erimyzon sucetta)
threatened
Female Lake Chubsuckers can lay up to 20,000 eggs each!
Northern Brook Lamprey
Northern Brook Lamprey (Ichthyomyzon fossor)
special concern
Unlike some other lamprey species, the Northern Brook Lamprey is non-parasitic and does not attach itself to larger host fish. The larvae are filter-feeders, consuming microscopic plant and animal life and decaying matter. Adults have a non-functional intestine and do not feed.
Pugnose Shiner
Pugnose Shiner (Notropis anogenus)
endangered
The Pugnose Shiner is one of the rarest minnows in eastern North America.
River Redhorse
River Redhorse (Moxostoma carinatum)
special concern
The maximum age reported for River Redhorse in Canada is 28 years.
Silver Chub
Silver Chub (Macrhybopsis storeriana)
special concern
Pollution abatement in and around Lake Erie has improved water quality dramatically which has helped improve habitat conditions for the Silver Chub.
Silver Shiner
Silver Shiner (Notropis photogenis)
special concern
Silver Shiners are easily confused with Emerald Shiners and Rosyface Shiners, which may have contributed to the fact that they were only confirmed in Canada in 1973, but may have always been present.
Spotted Gar
Spotted Gar (Lepisosteus oculatus)
threatened
The Spotted Gar can breathe air! It uses a special organ called a swim bladder like a lung when the fish comes to the surface for a breath of air. This allows the fish to live in areas with little oxygen in the water. Like most fishes, the Spotted Gar also uses gills to breath underwater.

Insects

Laura’s Clubtail
Laura’s Clubtail (Stylurus laurae)
endangered
Laura’s Clubtail was first recorded in Ontario in 1999.
Rusty-patched Bumble Bee
Rusty-patched Bumble Bee (Bombus affinis)
endangered
The Rusty-patched Bumble Bee gets nectar from flowers by biting a hole in the outside of it and sucking up the nectar with its tongue. This behaviour, called “nectar-robbing”, leaves marks on the flower than can help researchers detect the bees’ presence in an area.

Mammals

American Badger
American Badger (Taxidea taxus)
endangered
When threatened, badgers release a foul smelling musk to drive off enemies.
Woodland Vole
Woodland Vole (Microtus pinetorum)
special concern
Woodland Voles are monogamous, and both males and females participate in caring for the young.

Mussels

Eastern Pondmussel
Eastern Pondmussel (Ligumia nasuta)
endangered
To attract fish for its larvae to attach to, the female pondmussel produces a lure that looks like the wriggling legs of a swimming shrimp.
Kidneyshell
Kidneyshell (Ptychobranchus fasciolaris)
endangered
Kidneyshell larvae are clustered into packages called "conglutinates" when released, and somewhat resemble fish fry complete with eye spots, or insect larvae. When a fooled fish bites down on one of these packages, the larvae burst out and attach to the fish gills where they live as parasites and consume nutrients from the fish until they transform into juvenile mussels and drop off.
Round Pigtoe
Round Pigtoe (Pleurobema sintoxia)
endangered
Round Pigtoe eggs hatch inside a special pouch in the mother’s gills called a marsupium, where the larvae are supported before being ejected into the water.
Snuffbox
Snuffbox (Epioblasma triquetra)
endangered
The Snuffbox's main host is the Logperch, which is known to frequently roll over small stones and gravel in search of food. The Snuffbox waits patiently for a Logperch to come along and touch its shell. The Snuffbox then captures the Logperch in its shell and holds the stunned fish long enough to puff out a cloud of mussel larvae that attach to the fish gills, where they live as parasites that consume nutrients from the fish body. The startled fish is then released.

Plants

American Chestnut
American Chestnut (Castanea dentata)
endangered
People used the American Chestnut for treating numerous ailments (from coughs and dermatitis to heart trouble), as a staple food and beverage, to build shelters, for firewood and as a source of dye. Early settlers soon realized the many important uses of this tree.
American Columbo
American Columbo (Frasera caroliniensis)
endangered
American Columbo may live for many years but it flowers only once and then dies.
American Ginseng
American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius)
endangered
Aboriginal people have used American Ginseng for a wide range of medicinal purposes including treatment of headaches, earaches, rheumatism, convulsions, bleeding, fevers, vomiting, tuberculosis, gonorrhea and as a cure-all when other treatments failed.
American Water-willow
American Water-willow (Justicia americana)
threatened
American Water-willow (Latin name: Justicia americana) is named after James Justice who was an 18th century Scottish horticulturalist and botanist. “Americana” refers to the plant being native to the Americas.
Bent spike-rush
Bent spike-rush (Eleocharis geniculata)
endangered
This plant can store seeds in the soil for years waiting for the right conditions to grow.
Bird's-foot Violet
Bird's-foot Violet (Viola pedata)
endangered
Bird’s-foot Violet has a creative way to disperse seeds. The tiny seeds are contained inside a smooth green seedpod that bursts open and flings the seeds up to five metres away.
Broad Beech Fern
Broad Beech Fern (Phegopteris hexagonoptera)
special concern
Broad Beech Fern reproduces through spores. The spores are contained in a case-like structure called a sporangium. The sporangia burst upon maturity at the end of summer and the spores are scattered through the air.
Colicroot
Colicroot (Aletris farinosa)
threatened
Colicroot is also known as “Ague root” because it was used to treat some fevers, which were often referred to as “ague” in Middle English.
Common Hoptree
Common Hoptree (Ptelea trifoliata)
threatened
Common Hoptree is one of two native larval host plants for the rare Giant Swallowtail butterfly.
Crooked-stem Aster
Crooked-stem Aster (Symphyotrichum prenanthoides)
threatened
Bees and butterflies pollinate the flowers of the Crooked-stem Aster. The seeds are scattered by wind after ripening.
Cucumber Tree
Cucumber Tree (Magnolia acuminata)
endangered
The Cucumber Tree gets its name from its fruit that is pickle-like in shape and changes from green to red as it ripens. Once ripe, the oily, scented seeds are exposed and hang by fine threads. It is assumed that birds are the main consumers and dispersers of these seeds.
Eastern Flowering Dogwood
Eastern Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida)
endangered
The bright red fruit of this tree is poisonous to humans but can be eaten by over 50 species of birds and small mammals. These animals help distribute Eastern Flowering Dogwood seeds throughout forests.
Green Dragon
Green Dragon (Arisaema dracontium)
special concern
The Green Dragon’s root is bitter tasting and poisonous unless specially prepared, but it was used medicinally by Aboriginal people and European settlers.
Horsetail Spike-rush
Horsetail Spike-rush (Eleocharis equisetoides)
endangered
Horsetail Spike-rush was used by the Seminole Indians to make beads for jewelry.
Juniper Sedge
Juniper Sedge (Carex juniperorum)
endangered
This species is new to science. The biology of the Juniper Sedge is not well known, since the plant was only discovered in Ontario in the early 1990s.
Large Whorled Pogonia
Large Whorled Pogonia (Isotria verticillata)
endangered
As do all orchids, Large Whorled Pogonia has a symbiotic relationship with fungus found in the soil, which means they are interdependent for nourishment and survival. The Large Whorled Pogonia will only produce seeds if the necessary fungus is present in the soil.
Pygmy Pocket Moss
Pygmy Pocket Moss (Fissidens exilis)
special concern
Pygmy Pocket Moss can self-fertilize and produce fertile spores without being in close proximity to other Pygmy Pocket Mosses.
Round-leaved Greenbrier
Round-leaved Greenbrier (Smilax rotundifolia)
threatened
The seeds of Round-leaved Greenbrier can remain buried in the soil for at least three years while waiting for the right conditions to start growing a new plant.
Small White Lady's-slipper
Small White Lady's-slipper (Cypripedium candidum)
endangered
Individual Small White Lady’s-slipper plants may not flower until as many as 16 years after germination.
Spotted Wintergreen
Spotted Wintergreen (Chimaphila maculata)
endangered
Aboriginal peoples used Spotted Wintergreen for a variety of medicinal purposes including as a poultice, for rheumatism, and for the treatment of colds and fevers.
Swamp Rose-mallow
Swamp Rose-mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos)
special concern
The total Canadian population of Swamp Rose-mallow is estimated to consist of fewer than 10,000 plants.
Virginia Goat's-rue
Virginia Goat's-rue (Tephrosia virginiana)
endangered
Virginia Goat's-rue has its own self-defence against pesky insects. The chemical rotenone has been found in the plant, a chemical that is used as an insecticide and piscicide.
Virginia Mallow
Virginia Mallow (Sida hermaphrodita)
endangered
In Poland and Russia, this plant is cultivated and used as biomass for creating energy and heat.

Snakes

Eastern Foxsnake
Eastern Foxsnake (Pantherophis gloydi)
endangered (Carolinian population), threatened (Georgian Bay population)
If frightened, this harmless snake will mimic a rattlesnake by vibrating the tip of its tail in leaf litter to produce a buzzing noise.
Eastern Hog-nosed Snake
Eastern Hog-nosed Snake (Heterodon platirhinos)
threatened
Unlike other snakes that tend to hibernate in groups, the Eastern Hog-nosed Snake usually spends the winter months alone. It may hibernate in a pre-existing burrow or dig a burrow in the ground with its snout.
Eastern Ribbonsnake
Eastern Ribbonsnake (Thamnophis sauritus)
special concern
Many species of snakes lay eggs, but Eastern Ribbonsnakes give birth to live young.
Gray Ratsnake
Gray Ratsnake (Pantherophis spiloides)
Endangered (Carolinian population), Threatened (Frontenac Axis population)
This snake is an excellent climber and may be seen up a tree or bush sunning, preparing to shed its skin or hunting for prey.
Milksnake
Milksnake (Lampropeltis triangulum)
special concern
The Milksnake got its name from the false belief that it takes milk from cows in barns, which it often inhabits. Milksnakes cannot drink milk, and are attracted to barns by the abundance of mice.
Queensnake
Queensnake (Regina septemvittata)
endangered
Queensnakes are excellent swimmers and can often be seen swimming and hunting underwater for their main food source – freshly-moulted crayfish. When freshly moulted, crayfish are soft, defenceless and easier to swallow. Ironically, during winter hibernation, crayfish turn the table and will eat juvenile and hibernating Queensnakes.

Turtles

Blanding's Turtle
Blanding's Turtle (Emydoidea blandingii)
threatened
These turtles can survive in the wild for more than 75 years.
Eastern Musk Turtle
Eastern Musk Turtle (Stinkpot) (Sternotherus odoratus)
threatened
Unlike other turtles, the Eastern Musk Turtle rarely leaves the water except when females lay eggs. It spends most of the day resting on the soft lake bottom, foraging for food or basking in the sun under floating aquatic vegetation in shallow water.
Northern Map Turtle
Northern Map Turtle (Graptemys geographica)
special concern
The Northern Map Turtle is extremely wary and will dive into the water at the slightest provocation.
Snapping Turtle
Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina)
special concern
These turtles spend so much time underwater that algae grow on their shells. This helps them blend in with their surroundings.
Spiny Softshell
Spiny Softshell (Apalone spinifera)
threatened
The Spiny Softshell turtle captures crayfish and molluscs by partially burying itself underwater in the sand or mud and snatching unsuspecting prey. Its snorkel-like snout allows it to take a breath of air while submerged.
Spotted Turtle
Spotted Turtle (Clemmys guttata)
endangered
Most female and male turtles look a little bit different. In the case of Spotted Turtles, females have bright orange eyes and chins whereas males’ are dark brown or black.
Wood Turtle
Wood Turtle (Glyptemys insculpta)
endangered
Wood turtles do not begin reproducing until they are at least 17 years old.

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The Endangered Species Act


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